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The Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released a long-anticipated update to the source-of-record for cetane number data. This version of the compendium, which includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature published prior to March 2014, contains cetane values for 388 pure compounds, including 187 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium.
Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel’s autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines and is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition (ignition delay). The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber.
A minimum cetane number is specified in the ASTM standard that defines the quality of diesel fuel sold in the United States.
Values in the previous compendium (published in 2004) derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers.
The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.
This information is vital to the development of new, energy-efficient, low-carbon fuels and compatible engines. Researchers, as well as members of the engine, vehicle, and fuel industries, rely on these numbers to target compounds for development of new fuels capable of greater energy efficiency, cleaner emissions, and maximum performance in diesel engines.
The original report has been cited more than 130 times. We expect that the new edition will continue be used extensively to develop models, target compounds for new fuels, and tools to help predict cetane numbers in the future.—NREL Principal Engineer Robert McCormick
J. Yanowitz, M.A. Ratcliff, R.L. McCormick, J.D. Taylor and M.J. Murphy (2014) Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers (NREL/TP-5400-61693)
Volvo Cars is introducing the Drive-E powertrain with a 245 hp gasoline turbo T5 engine, made available earlier this year for the V40 (earlier post), for the V40 Cross Country with the added capability of AWD. Compared to the V40 Cross Country’s previous T5 engine, the new powertrain reduces emissions to 149 g/km—lower than the Audi Q3 TFSI Quattro (179 g/km); the BMW X1 BMW X1 xDrive20i xLine auto (170 g/km); or the Mercedes-Benz B-class (SUV) 220 Sport 4MATIC DCT (156 g/km).
Adding to the refinement and fuel-efficient driveability is the 8-speed automatic gearbox with paddles on the steering wheel for manual gear shifting. The upgrade will be available starting mid-fall in Europe, with a global roll-out over the following months.
This powertrain upgrade continues the series of enhancements that have been made to the V40 Cross Country this year. Other new additions have been a 19" Damara alloy wheel with grey diamond-cut rims, delivering not only extra comfort and off-road capability, but also less noise and added rim protection; plus a new exterior color, Power Blue, as well as the updated on-board infotainment and navigation system, Sensus Connect, providing customers with a fully connected car.
Neste Oil Singapore Pte Ltd and National Oxygen Pte Ltd (NOX), one of the one of the largest industrial gas manufacturers in Singapore, have signed an agreement to install a carbon dioxide recovery and liquefaction plant at Neste Oil’s renewable diesel (NExBTL) refinery in Singapore.
Construction is planned to commence in the fourth quarter of 2014 and the plant, which will process an average 40,000 tons of CO2-rich gas from the refinery yearly, is expected to be completed and fully operational by the fourth quarter of 2015.
The new recovery plant will improve the refinery's resource efficiency and see one of our sidestreams become a valuable raw material for NOX.—Jussi Hintikka, Vice President in Energy in Neste Oil
The majority of Neste Oil’s direct carbon dioxide emissions are refining-related and generated at the Porvoo refinery in Finland. Refining-related carbon dioxide emissions are largely produced when burning fuel in fired heaters and in energy generation. The Porvoo refinery recovers carbon dioxide produced during its refining processes and sells the gas to a company located locally. A total of 156,500 tons of carbon dioxide was recovered in 2013.
NOX is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Japan’s Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, which offers a comprehensive range of products and services for various gas applications—Industrial Gas, Specialty Gas, Gas Equipment, Plant and Machinery etc.