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Gulf Racing Fuels announced that its Gulf MARINE biofuel with isobutanol (earlier post) is one of the first fuels on the market to comply with the recent biofuel recommendations issued last week by the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) and the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC). (Earlier post.)
Gulf MARINE fuel is made with Gevo-supplied isobutanol at a 12.5% ratio to gasoline. Gulf offers two octane choices: 93 and 100. Gulf also offers a 16.1% blend for racing applications only.
Primary benefits of isobutanol-blended gasoline include improved moisture and water resistance, higher energy content, and preventing phase separation in the fuel system and reducing engine corrosion.
The new recommendations come after five years of extensive marine industry testing of fuel containing isobutanol. Those testing the fuel included the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; Volvo-Penta; Bombardier Recreational Products; Evinrude; Yamaha; Mercury Marine; Honda; Tohatsu; Indmar; and the US Coast Guard.
The testing was undertaken to confirm that recreational boaters could power their engines with gasoline blends that contain isobutanol as a replacement for ethanol, and experience fewer problems and better performance while still meeting government-mandated Renewable Fuel Standards.
Isobutanol is a registered fuel additive with blends of up to 12.5% allowed for on-road gasoline. Gulf MARINE fuel is available at participating Gulf retailers and marinas in factory-sealed packages of 5 gallons and 55 gallons.
Five years after first establishing a strategic cooperation, Daimler and the Renault-Nissan Alliance have expanded their collaboration with the start of a manufacturing joint venture in Aguascalientes in central Mexico. The new business entity COMPAS (Cooperation Manufacturing Plant Aguascalientes) is 50:50 owned by Daimler and Nissan. The partners will invest a total of US$1 billion in COMPAS which will oversee the construction and operation of a manufacturing plant for the production of next-generation premium compact vehicles for the brands Mercedes-Benz and Infiniti.
The state-of-the-art plant will be located near the Nissan Aguascalientes A2 plant. It will have an initial annual production capacity of more than 230,000 vehicles and will create about 3,600 direct jobs by 2020. Depending on the market development and customer demand, there will be the potential to add additional capacity. Production of Infiniti vehicles will begin in 2017, first Mercedes-Benz vehicles will roll off the line in 2018.
COMPAS is led by an international management team from Daimler and Nissan: Ryoji Kurosawa is Chief Executive Officer (CEO); Uwe Jarosch is Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and Glaucio Leite is Chief Quality Officer (CQO).
Kurosawa has more than 30 years’ manufacturing experience at both Nissan and Infiniti. In his last position as General Manager of the Tochigi Plant in Japan, he was in charge of the production and quality of Infiniti, including the Infiniti Q50 flagship sedan.
During more than 40 years at Daimler, Jarosch has completed various and largely international assignments in finance and controlling. In his last position as CFO of the Mercedes-Benz passenger cars business in India, he had a responsible role in the significant expansion of the local production and the sales network in the country.
During 24 years at Daimler, Leite has taken over various functions in production and planning at Mercedes-Benz commercial vehicles as well as passenger cars in Brazil and Germany. In his last position, after several project assignments at the passenger car plants in the USA and China, he oversaw preparations for the final assembly of the next-generation E-Class at the Mercedes-Benz Sindelfingen plant in Germany.
The decision-making process of COMPAS is supported by a Board of Directors made up of three executives from each company. The board members from Daimler are: Michael Göbel, Head of Production Compact Cars, Mercedes-Benz Cars; Axel Harries, Head of Quality Management, Mercedes-Benz Cars; and Christian Schulz, Head of Controlling, Mercedes-Benz Cars Operations.The Nissan executives are: Armando Avila, Manufacturing VP, Nissan Mexico; Carlos Servin, Finance VP, Nissan North America; and Takehiro Terai, Total Customer Satisfaction VP, Nissan North America.
As announced in June 2014, Daimler and Infiniti will also cooperate in the development of the next-generation premium compact vehicles for the brands Mercedes-Benz and Infiniti. The two partners will closely collaborate at every stage of the product creation process. Brand identity will be safeguarded as the Mercedes-Benz and Infiniti vehicles will clearly differ from each other in terms of product design, driving characteristics, and specifications.
Daimler and Nissan will also produce the next-generation premium compact cars at other production locations around the world, including Europe and China.
Researchers at Purdue University have discovered a previously unknown type of metal deformation—sinuous flow—and a potentially simple method to suppress it. The results, reported in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), could lead to more efficient machining and other manufacturing advances by significantly reducing the force and energy required to process metals by more than 50%.
Annealing is a heat-treatment process used to soften metals for machining. Counterintuitively, however, annealed metals are surprisingly difficult to cut, the Purdue team noted, involving high forces and an unusually thick “chip.” The conventional explanation for this anomaly has used a model of smooth plastic flow with uniform shear to describe material removal by chip formation. In their study, the Purdue team showed that the phenomenon is actually the result of a fundamentally different collective deformation mode: sinuous flow. Using in situ imaging, they found that chip formation occurs via large-amplitude folding, triggered by surface undulations of a characteristic size.
The observed folding in metal resembles patterns created during the flow of highly viscous fluids such as honey and liquid polymers. It also is similar to fold patterns observed in natural rock formations. The researchers borrowed methods from the geophysics community in their analysis of fold properties in metals.
They also found that sinuous flow can be controlled by suppressing this folding behavior by simply applying common marking ink remote from the cutting interface.
Our observations establish sinuous flow as another mesoscopic deformation mode, alongside mechanisms such as kinking and shear banding. Additionally, by suppressing the triggering surface undulations, sinuous flow can be eliminated, resulting in a drastic reduction of cutting forces. We demonstrate this suppression quite simply by the application of common marking ink on the free surface of the workpiece material before the cutting. Alternatively, prehardening a thin surface layer of the workpiece material shows similar results. Besides obvious implications to industrial machining and surface generation processes, our results also help unify a number of disparate observations in the cutting of metals, including the so-called Rehbinder effect.—Yeung et al.
The conventional view. Schematic of idealized plane–strain cutting showing chip formation by smooth laminar flow, with simple shear. The deformation zone is highlighted in blue. Initial chip thickness h0 is measured from free surface to the surface of material separation. The workpiece material undergoes plastic shape transformation to form a chip with final thickness hc. The velocity of bulk material flow against the tool is V0.
When the workpiece ia annealed, an unusually thick chip results and the forces in- volved in the process are very large. This well-known difficulty in cutting had eluded fundamental explanation. The high forces required were attributed to the thick chip developed in the process, without an explanation of the cause of such anomalous chip formation. Yeung et al. Click to enlarge.
When the metal is sheared during a cutting process it forms these finely spaced folds, which we were able to see for the first time only because of direct observation in real time.—postdoctoral research associate Ho Yeung
Findings showed the cutting force can be reduced 50% simply by painting metal with a standard marking ink. Because this painted layer was found to suppress sinuous flow, the implications are that not only can energy consumption be reduced by 50% but also that machining can be achieved faster and more efficiently and with improved surface quality, said Srinivasan Chandrasekar, a professor of industrial engineering.
The fact that the metal can be cut easily with less pressure on the tool has significant implications. Machining efficiency is typically limited by force, so it is possible to machine at a much faster rate with the same power.—W. Dale Compton, the Lillian M. Gilbreth Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Industrial Engineering
Applying less force also generates less heat and vibration, reducing tool wear and damage to the part being machined, which would improve the accuracy of the process while reducing cost, Compton said.
The discovery is intriguing to researchers because the ink was not added between the cutting tool and the metal; it was painted onto the free surface of the metal where it was not in direct contact with the tool.
This may sound eerie, even ridiculous, to people in the field because the cutting is not happening on the painted surface, it is occurring at some depth below.—graduate student Koushik Viswanathan
In one class of experiments, Yeung inked only half of a sample. When the cutting tool reached the inked portion, the amount of force dropped immediately by half. Yeung tested various coatings including the marking ink, nail polish, resins and commercial lubricants. He also tried first coating metal with a lubricant before adding the ink. Findings revealed that because the lubricant prevented the ink from sticking well to the surface, the suppression of the sinuous flow was less effective.
It seems that the ink used commercially to mark metal is very good at suppressing the sinuous flow, probably because it is designed to stick well to metals—Srinivasan Chandrasekar
The discovery leaves open the possibility that coatings with improved adhesion might produce greater suppression of sinuous flow and further reductions in cutting force. Although the team made the discovery in metal-cutting experiments, Chandrasekar said understanding sinuous flow and its suppression and control could lead to new opportunities in a range of manufacturing applications that involve metal deformation such as in machining, stamping, forging and sheet-metal processes.
Another possibility is the design of new materials for energy absorption—by deliberately enhancing sinuous flow—for applications in armor, vehicles and structures.
Future research will include work to develop a model for sinuous flow, to learn more about the physical mechanisms in sinuous flow and its suppression and to investigate properties of coatings. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation and conducted through Purdue’s Center for Materials Processing and Tribology.
Ho Yeung, Koushik Viswanathan, Walter Dale Compton, and Srinivasan Chandrasekar (2015) “Sinuous flow in metals” PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1509165112
Cummins Westport Inc. is introducing its new 2016 ISB6.7 G, a 6.7-liter MidRange, factory-built, dedicated natural gas engine (earlier post), to the Type C School bus market at the North American School Bus Show – STN Expo Conference and Trade Show in Reno, Nevada.
The ISB6.7 G natural gas engine is based on the Cummins ISB6.7 diesel engine platform. The ISB6.7 G is fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) or renewable natural gas (RNG), utilizing Cummins Westport’s proprietary spark-ignited, stoichiometric combustion with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (SEGR) technology. Currently in field trials, the ISB6.7 G will be in full production by mid-2016.
An important feature of the ISB6.7 G is Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment, which is packaged as a muffler, and is maintenance-free. No Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment will be required.
Preliminary specifications include a range of ratings up to 260 hp (194 kW) and 660 lb-ft (895 N·m) torque, and automatic transmission capability, to meet customer and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) requirements. The ISB6.7 G will be manufactured at the Cummins Rocky Mount Engine Plant in Whitakers, N.C.
The ISB6.7 G will be certified at launch to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) emissions standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 0.01 g/bhp-hr particulate matter (PM), and 2017 U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel-economy regulations.
General Motors and SAIC Motor are enhancing their partnership through an agreement jointly to develop the core architecture and engine of a new vehicle family targeting global growth markets. GM expects the partnership will result in significant development cost savings and optimized total vehicle cost. GM’s Chevrolet brand will invest $5 billion in the development of the all-new vehicle family.
The vehicle family is being developed by a multinational team of engineers and designers assigned to ensure each entry is tailored to meet the expectations of customers in each market. Vehicles will be manufactured and sold in several markets including Brazil, China, India and Mexico, and exported for sale to other important growth markets.
There are no plans to export the vehicles to mature markets such as the United States. A high level of localization of parts suppliers should drive significant savings over the life of the program. The program is expected to grow to more than 2 million vehicles annually with the first entry planned for the 2019 model year.
With a significant majority of anticipated automotive industry growth in 2015 to 2030 outside of mature markets, Chevrolet is taking steps to capitalize on that growth. Strengthening Chevrolet’s position through this major investment is consistent with our global strategy to ensure long-term profitable growth in the markets where we operate.—General Motors President Dan Ammann
By creating one all-new vehicle family to replace several existing vehicles, Chevrolet expects to improve competitiveness and profitability substantially by delivering what customers expect in each market while taking maximum advantage of the benefits of global scale.
This new vehicle family will feature advanced customer-facing technologies focused on connectivity, safety and fuel efficiency delivered at a compelling value. It will be a combination of content and value not offered previously by any automaker in these markets that are poised for growth.—Mark Reuss, GM executive vice president, Global Product Development, Purchasing and Supply Chain
More information on the investment plans and all-new vehicle family will be announced in the future in each market.