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The 4th Sino-US Workshop on Motor Vehicle Pollution Prevention and Control

Staff Contact(s):

David Vance Wagner, Hui He

Summary

The Sino-US motor vehicle emission control workshop series focuses on comprehensive strategies to manage the environmental impacts of mobile sources. The topics of this 4th workshop were transportation emission control technologies and policies for both on-road vehicles and off-road equipment.


 

On June 9-10, 2014, the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) and the Vehicle Emission Control Center of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (VECC-MEP) co-sponsored the 4th Sino-US Workshop on Motor Vehicle Pollution Prevention and Control in Beijing. The workshop was supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (MEP). Additional financial support for the workshop was generously provided by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). Over 150 experts from government, research academies, universities, NGOs and industry participated in this two-day workshop.

China’s remarkable recent economic growth has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in motor vehicle population, leading to enormous environmental pressures, especially urban air pollution. MEP has estimated that vehicles contribute a quarter to a third of particulate matter air pollution and at least half of urban nitrogen oxide pollution in China's megacities. Many of these emissions come from heavy-duty vehicles. China has responded aggressively with efforts to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of these tens of millions of vehicles, including the stepwise implementation of increasingly stringent tailpipe emissions and fuel quality standards. However, air quality remains poor throughout the country, and it is clear that much more must be done.

The Sino-US motor vehicle emission control workshop series focuses on comprehensive strategies to manage the environmental impacts of mobile sources. Earlier conferences in 2005, 2006, and 2009 focused on ultra-low sulfur fuel, emissions compliance programs and vehicle emissions reduction, respectively.

The topics of this workshop were transportation emission control technologies and policies for both on-road vehicles (especially for heavy-duty vehicles) and off-road equipment. Three sections were developed, accordingly: emissions control strategies and policies, technologies, and off-road emission control. Below are highlights from each section:

Compliance. As mentioned in the excellent opening speech from Wang Jian, Deputy Director of the Pollution Prevention and Control Deptartment of MEP, China has been continuously implementing strengthened emissions standards for new vehicles, but poor compliance and in-use management has hindered the pace of vehicle emissions control. The availability of core emissions control technologies such as SCR for NOx control is no longer an issue, but the actual adoption and market acceptance of the technologies is.

The next stage of China’s vehicle emissions standards. (China 6/VI). China reached a major milestone a few weeks ago when it formally announced the standard development plan for the China 6/VI standards. This is important news because it means China has officially acknowledged the long-term need for next phase, world-class emission standards. The plan calls for the development of the LDV China 6 standard by the end of 2015 and the HDV China VI standard by the end of 2016. There has been no announcement yet on specific implementation dates. Many of the technical details were discussed during the internal meeting on the second day.

Off-road vehicle emissions control. An entire morning session of the workshop focused on control of emissions from off-road equipment, including construction and agricultural equipment, in addition to ships, locomotives, and aircraft. There is broad agreement that these sources are a key priority now and in the coming years. 

One of the major successes of the workshop was the interaction between the U.S. EPA and the Chinese audience. Comprehensive speeches focused on heavy-duty vehicle standard compliance, a voluntary high-emission vehicle retirement program and off-road emissions reduction programs. EPA OTAQ officials Justin Greuel and Gregory Orehowsky introduced detailed questions and sparked rich discussion on in-use compliance and supervision, end-user engagement (urea refueling etc.), recall programs, future technology options, etc. The depth of the questions and answers signaled the strong willingness of central government and local environmental protection agencies to ensure enforcement from vehicle certification to in-use stages.

One missing piece of the puzzle in launching a further tightened vehicle emissions standard (China 6/VI) is how the emissions reduction and health benefits from the new standards compare to the cost of adopting the advanced technologies and a stringent emissions control program. ICCT’s recent research filled in this blank. During the workshop, ICCT’s Vance Wagner and Zhenying Shao introduced a cost and benefit analysis – a mature and widespread framework in U.S. – to the audience, and shared the latest results. The results indicated the long-term social benefits from implementing China 6/VI standards are many times the costs.

Cost benefits fo China 6/VI in 2040

The afternoon session of June 10 was a closed-door round-table discussion among the central and local air quality regulators on China 6/VI and related issues. The ICCT co-hosted (together with VECC’s Ding Yan) and participated in the discussion. Centering around China’s next stage vehicle emissions standard and compliance, a comprehensive list of topics were discussed including: choice of world’s existing or development of China’s own test cycle, particulate mass vs. number requirement, OBD implementation, ORVR and evaporative emissions control pathway, converging emissions and fuel consumption tests, and barriers at the legislative level, etc. There will be a growing need for closer collaboration between the U.S. and Chinese government along with NGOs like the ICCT to address these issues in the future.

A selection of materials from the workshop are available through the links below.


在美国国际环保局(EPA)和中国环境保护部(MEP)的支持下,国际清洁交通委员会(ICCT)联手环境保护部机动车排污监控中心(VECC)于2014年6月9-10日在北京共同主办了第四届中美机动车污染防治研讨会。气候和清洁空气联盟慷慨支持了部分研讨会的资金。中美两国环境保护的政府官员、研究机构、学者以及企业界的人士等超过150人参与了此次会议。
 
中国经济的显著增长伴随着机动车保有量的激增。中国机动车数量的激增超出预期,也带来巨大的环境压力,尤其是城市空气污染。根据环境保护部的评估,在各大城市,机动车产生了四分之一至三分之一的颗粒物污染排放,以及至少二分之一的氮氧化物排放。很多的污染物都来自于重型车。中国已经采取了严格的措施以缓解千万辆机动车带来的环境影响,包括逐步实施更加严格的排放标准和燃油质量标准。但是,全国的空气质量依然较低,需要采取更多措施加以控制。
 
中美双方机动车污染防治研讨会系列关注于各种全方位战略,来管理流动污染源对环境的影响。在2005, 2006和2009年已开展就超低硫油品,车辆达标项目,机动车减排等方面非常成功的交流。
 
这次的主题主要集中于对于道路车辆(尤其是重型柴油车)和非道路设备交通污染控制的技术和政策。三大主要讨论的内容包括——污染控制战略和政策,相关控制技术,和非道路设备污染控制。以下是具体三大重点:
 
  1.  达标符合性。正如环境保护部污染防治司汪键副司长在精彩的开幕致辞中所提到的,中国已持续致力于实施更严格的新车尾气排放标准,然而相对落后的达标符合性和使用管理阻碍了车辆排放控制的步伐。核心污染控制技术,如针对于氮氧化物(NOx)的SCR技术,已不再是个问题,但是实际的采用和市场接受度仍有问题。
  2. 下一阶段中国的机动车尾气标准:国6/VI。中国在过去几周前实现了一个重要的里程碑,即正式宣布了国6/VI标准的制定计划。这个是非常重大的新闻,意味着中国正式承认需要下一阶段、世界等级的排放标准来实现长期减排。按计划,轻型车国6标准将在2015年底,重型车国VI标准讲在2016年底完成规划。目前尚未公布实施日期。但是很多技术细节在第二天的内部讨论会议中被积极讨论.
  3. 非道路设备污染控制。在这次两天的研讨会中,有半天的时间是用来专门讨论非道路设备的污染控制,包括建筑农用设备以及航运、火车和航空。与会代表一致同意控制这些污染来源是当前及近阶段的一个主要任务。
本次研讨会的成功之一在于带来了美国环保局和中国参会人员的热烈交流。美国环保局交通和空气质量办公室(EPA OTAQ)的Justin Greuel和Gregory Orehowsky介绍了重型车的标准符合性,自愿老旧、高排放车辆的淘汰项目和非道路设备减排项目,并就相关在用达标和监管、终端用户参与(尿素添加等)、召回、未来技术选择等问题展开了热烈的讨论,和回答了问题。深度问答环节展示了从中央到各地环保部门对于实施从车辆认证到在用阶段的执法确保性的强烈意愿。
 
对于实施下一阶段车辆排放标准(国6/VI)的讨论中,并未涉及到新的排放标准所带来的减排效果和健康改善,以及相对应的成本。而ICCT最近的研究工作正弥补了这个空白。
 
在此次研讨会中,来自ICCT的卫梵斯和邵臻颖,介绍了在美国被广泛使用成本效益分析方法,并分享了最新分析成果。结果表明,实施国6/VI标准所带来的长期社会效益为成本几倍 。
 
10日下午,中央和各地空气质量监管机构就国6/VI标准和相关事宜进行了闭门圆桌讨论会。ICCT受邀参加,并和机动车尾气监控中心的丁焰主任一起主持了讨论。讨论环绕着中国下一阶段机动车排放标准和符合性展开,包括:采用现有的工况还是发展中国自己的工况,颗粒物质量还是数量的要求,OBD的实施,ORVR和蒸发排放控制路线,合并污染物和油耗测试,立法层面的障碍等。很明显,中美双方政府,以及相关的研究机构,如ICCT,应就此些问题进一步的合作,
 
Justin Greuel,美国环保局柴油发动机达标管理中心的主任,做了开幕致辞,并且就美国各种减排方案,特别是针对于重型柴油发动机的方向进行了介绍。美国环保局的Gregory Orehowsky也对美国重型道路发动机达标管理方案做了非常详尽的介绍。
 
中国环境科学研究院,移动源污染控制研究基地的胡京南博士,就重型柴油车排放现状和监管对策做了介绍。
 
本次会议的日程和发言资料可以在下面链接下载。
AttachmentSize
PDF icon Final Agenda50.73 KB
PDF icon Situation and Mission of Air Pollution Prevention and Control in China - Lu Shize (English)1.71 MB
PDF icon Situation and Mission of Air Pollution Prevention and Control in China - Lu Shize (Chinese)1.94 MB
PDF icon Policy Measures for Improving Air Quality in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (Chinese)1.44 MB
PDF icon Policy Measures for Improving Air Quality in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (English)1.33 MB
PDF icon Vehicle Emission Control Policy in China - Ding Yan (English)2.49 MB
PDF icon Vehicle Emission Control Policy in China - Ding Yan (Chinese)2.62 MB
PDF icon Development of Heavy-Duty On-Highway Engine Regulations in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (English)252.4 KB
PDF icon Development of Heavy-Duty On-Highway Engine Regulations in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (Chinese)346.34 KB
PDF icon Compliance Management Program for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Engines in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (English)91.89 KB
PDF icon Compliance Management Program for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Engines in the U.S. - Greg Orehowsky (Chinese)214.02 KB
PDF icon Implementation and Challenge of China IV Heavy-Duty Standard - Yunshan Ge (English)2.47 MB
PDF icon Implementation and Challenge of China IV Heavy-Duty Standard - Yunshan Ge (Chinese)2.53 MB
PDF icon Status Quo of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions and its Regulatory Control Policy - Jingnan Hu (English & Chinese)4.46 MB
PDF icon Voluntary Emission Reduction Program in US - Justin Greuel (English)926.34 KB
PDF icon Voluntary Emission Reduction Program in US - Justin Greuel (Chinese)1.09 MB
PDF icon U.S. Emission Controls Technical Roadmap for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - Joe Kubsh (English)3.65 MB
PDF icon U.S. Emission Controls Technical Roadmap for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - Joe Kubsh (Chinese)3.74 MB
PDF icon Cost-Benefit Analysis of China 6/VI Standards - David Vance Wagner, Zhenying Shao (English)1.19 MB
PDF icon Cost-Benefit Analysis of China 6/VI Standards - David Vance Wagner, Zhenying Shao (Chinese)1.26 MB
PDF icon Non-Road Mobile Source Compliance Management Program in the U.S. - Justin Greuel (English)1.01 MB
PDF icon Non-Road Mobile Source Compliance Management Program in the U.S. - Justin Greuel (Chinese)1.15 MB
PDF icon Latest Progress on Non-Road Engine Emission Standards in China - Liang Ji (Chinese)2.18 MB
PDF icon Non-Road Mobile Source Emission Inventory Development - Hang Yin (English)8.68 MB
PDF icon Non-Road Mobile Source Emission Inventory Development - Hang Yin (Chinese)8.64 MB