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Reducing CO2 emissions from road transport in the European Union: An evaluation of policy options

The European Union’s 2030 climate and energy framework requires the transport, building and agriculture sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 30 percent below a 2005 baseline by 2030. This...
Published 2016.06.01: Publication

Action plan for establishing ship emission control zones in China

On 4 December 2015, China’s Ministry of Transport (MOT) released an action plan for implementing Ship Emission Control Zones (ECZs) in three key coastal regions: the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRD...
Published 2016.05.27: Publication

Comparison of leading electric vehicle policy and deployment in Europe

This study investigates consumer incentives for electric vehicles (EVs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), in the five largest EV markets in...
Published 2016.05.26: Publication

Emissions inventory for agricultural tractors and construction equipment in India

In 2014, the World Health Organization announced that India’s cities were among the most polluted in the world. Mobile sources are major contributors to local air pollution due to the emissions from...
Published 2016.05.18: Publication

Official vs. real-world road-load parameters in EU vehicle efficiency testing

On average, real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new European passenger cars exceeded official vehicle type-approval values by approximately 40 percent in 2014. This paper shows that...
Published 2016.05.09: Publication

Sustainability criteria for biofuels made from land and non-land based feedstocks

As part of the European Climate Foundation's Biofrontiers project, the Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) was asked to prepare a proposal for a set of sustainability criteria that...
Published 2016.05.09: Publication

Proposed new type-approval system for motor vehicles in the European Union

On 27 January 2016, the European Commission (EC) put forward a proposal that, if approved by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, would make fundamental and far-reaching...
Published 2016.04.29: Publication

Oil market futures: Effects of low-carbon transport policies on long-term oil prices

This study, commissioned by the European Climate Foundation, evaluates the effects of transport technology and policies on oil prices and the wider economy. The study compares a Business-as-Usual (...
Published 2016.04.29: Publication

Technical background on India BS VI fuel specifications

The proposed Bharat Stage (BS) VI regulation for on-road vehicles in India includes contains both emission standards for new vehicles as well as specifications for reference and commercial gasoline...
Published 2016.04.22: Publication

India Bharat Stage VI emission standards

On February 19, 2016, the Indian Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) issued a draft notification of Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards for all major on-road vehicle categories in...
Published 2016.04.22: Publication

Crops of the biofrontier: In search of opportunities for sustainable energy cropping

European biofuel policy has been dominated by discussions about the indirect effects of biofuel consumption, and in particular indirect land use change and impacts on food prices and security. One...
Published 2016.04.13: Publication

Review of LDV OBD requirements under the European, Korean and Californian emission programs

On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems monitor the performance of engine and aftertreatment components, especially those responsible for controlling harmful pollutant emissions. The OBD system does not...
Published 2016.03.31: Publication

Defeat devices under the U.S. and EU passenger vehicle emissions testing regulations

The paper aims to illuminate a paradox: Volkswagen and other automakers have asserted that software managing the emissions control systems on some of their vehicles, which they acknowledge either is...
Published 2016.03.22: Publication

The automotive sector in Turkey: A baseline analysis

Turkey is one of the largest vehicle manufacturing countries in the world, and the auto industry plays a key role in the Turkish economy. For Turkey, it is of particular importance to ensure that...
Published 2016.03.18: Publication

Leveling the playing field for novel fuel technologies

As part of the European Climate Foundation's Biofrontiers project, Défense Terre was asked to analyze the regulatory treatment of thirteen novel fuel technologies or “NFTs” in the European Union and...
Published 2016.03.11: Publication

Deficiencies in the Brazilian PROCONVE P-7 and the case for P-8 standards

DOWNLOAD PORTUGUESE VERSION (PDF) In January 2012, Brazil implemented the PROCONVE P-7 emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) to replace the previous P-5 standards (Euro III-equivalent)....
Published 2016.03.11: Publication

Environmental risks of diesel passenger vehicles in Brazil

DOWNLOAD PORTUGUESE VERSION (PDF)   Although Brazil has restricted the sale of diesel passenger cars since the 1970s, an auto industry lobby has been pressuring the government to lift the...
Published 2016.03.11: Publication

Engine technology pathways for heavy-duty vehicles in India

The primary objective of this literature review is to provide a glimpse at technology changes for diesel and natural gas (NG) engines in the HDV space that are expected over the next 10 to 15 years...
Published 2016.03.10: Publication

Engines and tires as technology areas for efficiency improvements for trucks and buses in India

India is in the process of developing fuel efficiency standards for new heavy-duty vehicles, and one critical input to regulatory development is a technology potential analysis to determine the...
Published 2016.03.02: Publication

Cost-benefit analysis of Brazil's heavy-duty emission standards (P-8)

DOWNLOAD PORTUGUESE VERSION (PDF) Brazil has controlled heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) emissions through the Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Veículos Automotores (PROCONVE) since 1990,...
Published 2016.03.01: Publication

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