This update adds one new data source, for a total of 14, covering 16 years, eight countries, and approximately 1.1 million cars. The analysis shows that, in the EU, the gap between official and real-world CO2 emission values continues to grow—from 9% in 2001 to 42% in 2016.
Investigates the gap between real-world and official CO2 emission values in the four largest vehicle markets in the world: China, the EU, Japan, and the United States. The analysis shows that the gap has increased in all markets since 2001.
Finds that for cars, the cost for meeting a 2025 target value of 70 g/km (as measured in the New European Driving Cycle - NEDC) is between 250 and 500 euros higher than would be the case in a footprint-based CO2 target system.
Compares dynamics of the most important driving cycles and their impacts on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions to produce an updated set of conversion factors for translating distance-based CO2 emissions among the different driving cycles.
First place is a three-way tie between Alaska, Spirit, and Frontier, but overall the fuel efficiency of U.S. domestic airlines showed no improvement in 2013. The slowing efficiency gains since 2010 highlight the need for policies to reduce aviation carbon emissions.
Introduces a novel methodology to monetize the benefit to consumers of electric vehicle incentives provided by U.S. states, and finds that more battery-electric vehicles are sold in states offering a greater total package of incentives.
Identifies six certification options, using Phase 1 and publicly expressed industry viewpoints as a guide, and evaluates them based on seven criteria developed to compare the certification procedures’ relative merits.
Assesses fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency technology adoption in China’s LCV market in 2010, focusing on differences among vehicle sub-categories and manufacturers, and compares fleet features and technologies in the U.S., EU, and China.
Documents the discrepancy between type-approval and real-world NOx emissions from new diesel passenger cars. On average, on-road NOx emissions from the vehicles tested for this analysis were about seven times higher than the limits set by the Euro 6 standard.
Builds on recent research on the integration of trailers into HDV fuel consumption and GHG emissions regulations to conclude that the U.S. Phase 2 rule presents an opportunity to capture substantial and highly cost-effective efficiency gains from technology improvements.