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Assessment using regionally specific least-cost animal diet modeling of feed displacement ratios for US corn dried distillers' grains and solubles (DDGS).
This paper compares fuel consumption / CO2 values of passenger cars from different sources and aims at quantifying the discrepancy between laboratory type-approval values and real-world values, including a retrospective analysis for the years 2001-2011 to determine if the gap between the two datasets has increased over time. Potential explanations for the discrepancies found are discussed and possible practical solutions for the future outlined.
This working paper, available in English and Chinese, provides an overview of existing in-use testing for CO2 and fuel economy programs in the United States in order to inform the development of a Chinese program.
This paper identifies the most effective technologies for CO2, emissions and safety measures and maps the status of regulatory programs for two- and three-wheeler management in Asian countries.
Focuses on the implementation of Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR) systems in the US and compares the pros and cons of using ORVR and Stage II controls to limit refueling emissions.
Addresses the basic principles of petroleum refining, as they relate to the production of ultra-low-sulfur fuels (ULSF), in particular gasoline (ULSG) and diesel fuel (ULSD).
Bioethanol production results in a co-product, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), that is used in the animal feed industry. It has been generally assumed that DDGS will replace both soya and cereals in animal feeds and this assumption, together with the ratio ascribed, has been used to predict land use and other factors. In Europe, it has generally been expected that replacing more soya and less cereals would have a beneficial effects on emissions, by reducing the risk of Amazon deforestation. It is therefore important for estimating indirect land use change impacts from biofuels that the correct ratios should be modeled.
The European Commission recently released updated results of modelling by the International Food Policy Research Institute of the likely indirect effects of the EU’s biofuels mandate. We critically assess this work, concluding that while there are inevitably areas that could be improved with further development it is a robust study and representative of best practice in the field of CGE modelling of iLUC. We note that in several areas criticisms made by the European Biodiesel Board do not appear to be well supported.
Reviews the experiences of the US, Japan and UK in enforcing motor fuel quality requirements. Lessons learned from these three countries are discussed to inform recommendations for the establishment of an effective fuel quality enforcement program.
This paper provides aggregated statistics for the fleet of new light-commercial vehicles in the EU for the year 2010.