Describes trends in global ship activity and emissions for the years 2013 to 2015 and finds that emissions generally increased over this period, with efficiency improvements more than offset by increases in activity.
Compiles a high-resolution ship emissions inventory in the Greater Pearl River Delta (GPRD), a heavily populated and prosperous region with heavy ship traffic. Because this traffic contributes to poor local air quality, the Chinese government has identified the GPRD region as a key target for steps to control emissions from ships.
Estimates heavy fuel oil (HFO) use, HFO carriage, the use and carriage of other fuels, BC emissions, and emissions of other air and climate pollutants in the Arctic for the year 2015, with projections to 2020 and 2025.
Compares the economic and environmental tradeoffs of switching from HFO to two alternative fuels, distillate fuel and liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the IMO Arctic, as defined in the IMO Polar Code.
On August 30, 2016, China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) jointly released the first-ever national emission standards for marine engines used in domestic shipping in China. Phase I standards will take effect on July 1, 2018, and stricter Phase II standards will take effect on July 1, 2021.
Measures marine BC emissions in the lab and onboard two container ships, one with a modern Tier II main engine and another with an older Tier 0 engine outfitted with an exhaust gas cleaning system (EGCS).
MEPC’s 70th session will consider two topics that may greatly reduce the amount of HFO used in the Arctic: a global marine fuel sulfur cap of 0.5% (currently it is 3.5%), and whether or not HFO use in the Arctic should be formally placed on the MEPC agenda. This paper provides key information needed to evaluate the potential risks HFO has to the Arctic environment.
Summarizes the specific actions to be implemented in the three key ECZs and compares them to standard emission control areas (ECAs) designated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Oil prices will be lower in the future if low-carbon transport technologies are mass deployed, as these technologies will drive a significant reduction in global demand for oil.
Evaluates the potential air-quality benefits of using shore-based electric generating facilities, as opposed to a ship's own engines, to supply power for operations (such as loading and unloading) while a ship lies berthed in port.
Investigates the contribution of black carbon from shipping to the global diesel black carbon inventory — 8% to 13% in 2010, a proportion that is not expected to decline under current and planned IMO policies.
Presents an emissions inventory based on scenarios for growth in marine vessel traffic in the U.S. Arctic in 2025. At current fuel sulfur levels, pollutant emissions from ships in the region could increase 150%–600%.
An assessment of long-term prospects for increasing the energy efficiency of tanker ships used to transport liquified natural gas, based on characteristics of the 2011 in-use LNG carrier fleet and global satellite data on ship movements.
Survey of technical literature and industry reports to assess equipment costs, environmental side effects, urea and catalyst availability and disposal, and overall system costs of SCR in the marine sector.
A novel analysis that connects 2011 in-use fleet characteristics, global satellite data on ship movement, and literature on ship technology to assess the long-term prospects for increasing shipping efficiency.
Analysis of the extent to which upstream carbon dioxide and methane emissions associated with producing liquefied natural gas offset its potential climate benefit.
A detailed analysis of technical and operational efficiency and carbon emissions across all international shipping vessels, using global satellite Automatic Identification System data on ship movement.
An assessment of policy options, legal issues, costs and benefits.
Presentation to the International Maritime Organization on the definition and measurement of marine black carbon emissions, 30 January 2012.
Summary of the July 2011 International Maritime Organization regulation setting increasing efficiency standards for large ships in 2015–2025.