Assesses the impact of market and political uncertainty on the real value of financial incentives from low-carbon fuel policies. Provides a detailed policy proposal and scenario analysis for a novel financing mechanism to support ultralow-carbon fuel production in California using a contract for difference (CfD) policy.
Based on more than a year of exchanges, this synthesis report presents five recommendations for a 2030 European policy for transport fuels regarding sustainability, carbon-intensity, incentives, competing uses and innovation.
The proposal would essentially add a new NEV credit program to the existing corporate average fuel consumption regulation for passenger cars overseen by MIIT.
An analysis of trends and developments in thermal management technology since the 2017–2025 light duty GHG/CAFE rule written by EPA and NHTSA in 2012.
Finds that fuel consumption of new aircraft designs could be cut by 25% in 2024 and 40% in 2034 using cost-effective emerging technologies—double the rate of improvement seen in designs coming from manufacturers now in response to market forces alone.
Independent, transparent estimates of the incremental benefits and costs of applying fuel-burn-reducing technology packages to new aircraft in the near- and mid-term.
Assesses feasibility, benefits, and costs of phasing out HFC-134a from the Chinese LDV fleet, focusing on three alternatives—HFO-1234yf, HFC-152a and CO2 (R-744)—most likely to be adopted by automakers with a global supply chain.
Current non-road regulatory programs lag behind comparable programs for on-road diesel engines, and are not stringent enough to compel the use of the best available technologies for the control of PM and NOx emissions.
Analyzes EV uptake at the city level, and assesses public charging infrastructure, model availability, and other factors to identify leading-edge markets in California. Provides a detailed analysis of the 30 California cities with the highest rates of EV penetration, examining how governments, utilities, businesses, and nonprofits are promoting EVs.
This paper provides an analysis of transmission technology development and trends, and compares them to the projections made by EPA and NHTSA for the 2025 CAFE regulation.
Details how implementing well-tested policy measures can help drive forward the necessary innovations and could reduce the total CO2 emissions of the LDV fleet in Turkey by about 36% compared to a business-as-usual scenario.
Legal note from Défense Terre analyzing the U.S. vehicle emissions regulation and associated guidance documentation and proposing areas where the European Union's type approval framework text could benefit from improved language.
A summary of the history and current state of biofuels policy in Indonesia, highlighting the tension between the country’s renewable energy policy and the ambition in reducing its carbon emissions.
Details how emission control defect reporting programs are used to improve compliance with passenger vehicle emission standards.
Aims to inform the debate over how electric vehicle technology could fit into a lower-carbon new-vehicle fleet in Europe in 2020–2030. Although the analysis is focused on Europe, similar technology, policy, and market dynamics can be observed throughout North America and Asia.
Reviews the environmental impacts of palm oil production for biofuel in Indonesia, including greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and air and water pollution.
The goal of this new stage of standard is to reduce fuel consumption by about 15% in 2020 from the 2015 levels, in order to further reduce the gap between China and other more developed markets globally.
Comprehensive technical overview of the Euro 6/VI vehicle emissions standards, looking at the historical context of the European regulations and considering what is likely to come next.