Glossary of terms

Common acronyms

BC
Black carbon, a component of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes and a short-lived climate pollutant
CO2e
Carbon dioxide-equivalent
COPERT
Computer program to calculate emissions from road transport (European Commission model)
DEF
Diesel exhaust fluid, commonly a mixture of urea and water used to reduce NOx from the engine into nitrogen gas and water vapor, the latter two of which are harmless to human health
DPF
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are the most effective technology to control emissions of fine particles and black carbon emissions from diesel vehicles. When vehicles are fueled with appropriate ultra-low sulfur diesel and properly maintained, DPFs can reduce these emissions by 99 percent compared to uncontrolled levels. DPFs are effectively required for diesel vehicles by the limits on particle number set at Euro 5 for LDVs and Euro VI for HDVs.
EFTA
European Free Trade Association
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency (United States)
EU
European Union
GDP
Gross domestic product
GHG
Greenhouse gas
GNI
Gross national income
GVW
Gross vehicle weight
GWP-20
Global warming potential over a 20-year time horizon, commonly relates to long term temperature change
GWP-100
Global warming potential over a 100-year time horizon, commonly relates to near term impacts on the rate of temperature change
HDV
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) include medium- and heavy-duty trucks, vocational vehicles, and buses. HDVs can also be referred to as heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs).
ICCT
International Council on Clean Transportation
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LCV
Light commercial vehicles are a type of light-duty vehicle and typically have more than 9 seats or are used primarily for cargo. In some regions, LCVs are referred to as light trucks.
LDV
Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) include passenger cars, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickups, vans, and light trucks, and light commercial vehicles (LCVs). LDVs typically have a maximum gross vehicle weight of 3,500 to 3,856 kilograms.
mbd
Million barrels of oil-equivalent per day (a measure of energy consumption)
MtCO2
Million metric tons of carbon dioxide
NOx
Oxides of nitrogen
OC
Organic carbon, a component of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes
PM, PM2.5
Particulate matter, fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers
PPP-GDP
Gross domestic product at purchasing power parity
ppm
Parts per million
SCR
Selective catalytic reduction
ULSD
Ultralow-sulfur diesel, with no greater than 15 parts per million sulfur
USD
United States dollars
VKT
Vehicle-kilometers traveled (a measure of vehicle activity)
VSL
Value of a statistical life, reflects the aggregate willingness to pay of society to reduce the statistical incidence of premature death in the population by one. May also be referred to as the value of mortality risk reduction.
WTP
Willingness to pay

Terms specific to this publication

EU + EFTA
Includes all member states of the European Union (EU) and members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) that follow environmental regulations set by the EU.
Other
Regions include countries within a given geographic region that are not broken out as individual markets.
Regulatory category
Indicates whether a regulation applies primarily to LDVs and HDVs.


SCTP
The State of Clean Transport Policy (this publication)
Vehicle efficiency standards
Include regulations targeting fuel consumption (e.g., MJ/km, L/100km), fuel economy (e.g., mpg, km/L), CO2 or GHG emissions (e.g., grams CO2/km, grams CO2e/mile).


World class emissions standards
Include US Tier 2 and Japan PNLTES for LDVs, and EPA 2010 and Japan PNLTES for HDVs. US Tier 3 and California LEV III standards will establish a new level of world-class standards for LDVs once they go into effect in 2017.