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Surveys the existing literature on methodologies related to the certification of low ILUC biofuel projects through different measures. It also assesses the potential challenges, risks, and loopholes that could arise from the use of these methodologies.
Based on more than a year of exchanges, this synthesis report presents five recommendations for a 2030 European policy for transport fuels regarding sustainability, carbon-intensity, incentives, competing uses and innovation.
Reviews and critiques a recent assessment of soil carbon changes resulting from the expansion of corn production for ethanol.
Prepares a proposal for a set of sustainability criteria that could be integrated into post-2020 EU legislation as a way to guarantee the sustainability of the next phase of the development of alternative fuels in Europe.
Characterizes six potential sources of indirect greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil and assesses the extent to which they are attributable to oil production.
A detailed but accessible overview of the concept of indirect land use change and the way that ILUC emissions are estimated. Identifies factors that determine the size of ILUC effects when biofuel demand increases and shows how they are handled in the most important models used in the U.S. and EU.