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Reviews provisions of the U.S. and EU regulations that define and prohibit defeat devices, as well as automakers' public statements in the aftermath of VW's admission that it used such defeat devices, as context for evaluating reform proposals.
Analyzes and compares new-vehicle type-approval procedures in the EU and U.S. with an eye toward demonstrating how best to align regulatory requirements, customer expectations, and environmental performance.
Proposes a rapid, comprehensive policy response not only to deal with defeat devices but also to identify vehicle models with high real-world emissions relative to test-cycle performance and improve current compliance and enforcement programs.