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In the transportation sector, refers to regulation that directly limits carbon dioxide emissions from a vehicle, as opposed to restricting those emissions indirectly (through, e.g., fuel economy standards). Examples would include the U.S. EPA 2016 standards for light-duty vehicles, which require LDVs to meet an estimated combined average emissions level of 250g CO2 per mile, or the EU rules establishing fleet-average emissions targets of 95g CO2 per kilometer for passenger cars and 175g CO2 per kilometer for light commercial vehicles.
Comparison of official and "real-world" fuel consumption and CO2 emission values for passenger cars in Europe and the United States, which shows that the average discrepancy between them rose from less than 10% in 2001 to 25% in 2011.
Assesses how an MTOW constraint, which would lead to a lower nominal payload-range capability for affected aircraft, would influence the economic value of several representative aircraft types.
Summarizes how data developed by Ricardo, Inc., was processed to provide the CO2 estimates used as inputs in the development of the EU cost curves.
Summarizes impacts of new vehicle mass reduction data on CO2 benefit and cost curves for light-duty vehicles in Europe, 2020–2025, and the effect that regulatory structures which do not fully reward or penalize manufacturers for the influences of changes in vehicle mass might have on overall compliance costs of CO2 standards. Third in a series.
Briefing on the potential and estimated costs of various vehicle technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, based on rigorous tear-down analyses carried out in the U.S. and Europe.
Concise overview of an analysis of the CO2 emission reduction potential of various vehicle technologies and estimate of associated costs in the EU market.
Evaluates the historical and potential impact of transportation policies on global oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.