Working Paper

Compliance pathways in the U.S. Phase 2 heavy-duty vehicle efficiency regulation


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recently published the final Phase 2 rules targeting fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to new heavy-duty vehicles and engines.

An intrinsic feature of the previously established Phase 1 and the new phase 2 regulations is that they are performance-based standards. The regulatory fuel consumption and CO2 targets are technology neutral, and manufacturers may use a variety of individual technology combinations and packages to achieve compliance.

This this study explores some of the compliance pathways available to heavy duty vehicle manufacturers. Specifically, this paper develops hypothetical technology packages for certain types of tractor trucks, vocational vehicles, and trailers using distinct technology strategies compares cost-effectiveness.

Table 6
Table 6. Cost rankings of the compliant technology packages in 2021, 2024, and 2027. The percentages in rows two through four (three for the MHD vehicle) are the difference in cost versus the low-cost package. 

Figure 12