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Evaluates the effect of Euro VI-equivalent emissions standards on bus system costs in Brazil.
Evaluates the level of technology adoption, costs, and efficiency improvement associated with alignment with the European Union’s 2021 emissions target of 95 gCO2/km (equivalent to 1.27 MJ/km) for new passenger cars in Brazil in 2023.
Analyzes emerging vehicle-efficiency technologies with respect to cost and capacity to lower carbon emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the 2025–2030 time frame.