Europe, the third-largest vehicle market in the world, is the home of giant automotive, aircraft, and shipbuilding industries and is an engine of world trade. The European Union has been a leader in environmental policy, and it plays an indispensable and growing part in global climate change efforts. ICCT Europe played the central role in bringing to light the “emissions gap”— the discrepancy between official, type-approval values and real performance in everyday operation. ICCT research contributes to the technical foundations underlying the EU’s plans to regulate CO2 emissions and reform legislation supporting low-carbon fuels in Europe.