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Because its vehicle fleet is small relative to its large population, India has very low per capita transportation emissions. But that fleet is growing rapidly: total vehicle sales (including motorcycles) increased from about 10 million in 2007 to almost 16 million in 2012, and the total number of vehicles on the road is expected to double to 250 million by 2025.

Air pollution, particularly in the form of particulate matter (PM), is a serious challenge in India, and transportation is a significant factor in the nation’s air quality problems. According to the World Health Organization, some 600,000 people in India die prematurely each year from diseases directly related to air pollution, making it the sixth largest cause of death in the country. Transportation sources account for approximately a third of PM pollution in India, and a somewhat higher proportion of nitrogen oxides, another set compounds harmful to human health.

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Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets
Diesel vehicles in major markets produce over 50% more NOx than official certification limits indicate. Study links these excess NOx emissions to ~38,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2015—mostly in the EU, China, and India. 
Report
Impacts of world class vehicle efficiency and emissions regulations in select G20 countries
Characterizes the climate and health benefits of adopting world-class standards for new vehicle efficiency/CO2 and conventional pollutant emissions in all members of the G20 Transport Task Group.
Report
Hybrid and electric vehicles in India: Current scenario and market incentives
Analyzes the various fiscal incentive mechanisms available in India at a national and state level for hybrid and electric vehicles, and evaluates the relative contribution of such incentives in making these technologies cost-...
Working paper
 

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From the ICCT Blogs

A sneak preview of future stages of Indian emission standards for non-road engines reveals a tractor-sized loophole
In short, it’s welcome news that Indian regulators have set their sights on catching up with best-practice emissions standards for non-road engines. Here’s hoping that in aiming for that goal in 2025 they don’t overlook a simple fix that will bring even more immediate help in solving the persistent air pollution problems facing the country.
Staff Blog
Leapfrogging an outdated standard puts India on par with global leaders in control of vehicle emissions
The adoption of Bharat Stage VI emission standards will significantly reduce air pollutant emissions from vehicles sold in India beginning in 2020. However, changes in the final rule notification will cause 3 years additional delay of truly world-class emission standards compared with the initial proposal.
Staff Blog
Reading the tea leaves in ICAO’s market-based measure
Revised text on the development of ICAO’s MBM for offsetting emissions growth from international aviation has been posted and would offset 60% to 80%+ of traffic growth, depending on who opt ins.
Staff Blog

The Staff

Anup Bandivadekar
Anup Bandivadekar
Program Director / India Lead