Working Paper

Low- and zero-emission zones and social equity: Supporting the urban transition to zero-emission vehicles and alternative transport modes

The paper examines financial supported measures targeted at those most in financial need in adopting vehicles or alternative transport modes within low-emission and zero-emission zones (LEZs and ZEZs) to achieve more equitable outcomes when planning and implementing such zones.

White paper

Are battery electric vehicles cost competitive? An income-based analysis of the costs of new vehicle purchase and leasing for the German market

The study investigates the cost of owning battery electric vehicles (BEVs) versus gasoline cars in Germany, highlighting the cost benefits in the compact car segment, the importance of purchase incentives, and the financial challenges lower-income individuals face in accessing the new BEV market.


An equitable transition from combustion engines to battery electric vehicles: Theoretical framework and status in Germany

Equitable mobility involves all transportation modes and a range of economic, social, and urban planning considerations. This study focuses on one important part of equitable mobility and the decarbonization of the transport sector: the transition from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to battery electric vehicles (BEVs). First, it provides theoretical background on the concept of […]