China’s railroads have significant potential to become the backbone of a modern, low-carbon intermodal freight transportation system.
An overview of strategies that can help China overcome bottlenecks and establish an efficient, clean intermodal freight system.
Experiences in other regions show that direct fiscal incentives are most important for consumer participation in scrappage programs.
India’s successful implementation of Bharat Stage VI emission standards is cause for celebration and evidence that big leaps are possible.
To lead the way in effectively controlling emissions from non-road vehicles, it is crucial for China to advance the China IV standards, as more stringent requirements on emissions will always lead to more advanced emission control technology. Thus, China would be wise to adopt the combination of the Tier 4 final emission standards (including covering non-road equipment of all sizes) and DPF requirement directly as the new China IV emission standards to effectively control PM and NOx emissions.
It is possible to mitigate climate change and lower health impacts through less reliance on private automobiles, reduced urban sprawl, higher rates of public transit, and stringent vehicle emission controls.
India’s increase in the excise duty and absence of LCV fuel-efficiency standards may lead some manufacturers to categorize some models as LCVs to avoid the fuel-efficiency standards.