India, like other developing countries, is characterized by a rising population, mounting urbanization and motorization, and low per capita income. As Indian cities have grown in population, they have also spread outward. A lack of effective planning and land use controls has resulted in rapid, rampant sprawl extending beyond old city boundaries and into the distant countryside. This greatly increased the number and length of trips for most Indians, forcing further reliance on motorized transport. Low density decentralization causes enormous problems for public transport. It generates less focused trips along well traveled corridors and, thus, is more difficult for transport to serve. In India, it has led to rapid growth in car and motorcycle ownership and use and resultant congested roadways that slow buses, increase bus operating costs, and further discourage public transport use.
This report, prepared by Innovative Transport Solutions for the ICCT and the Institute for Transport and Development Policy, surveys the industry, the regulatory framework, technology options, and other factors relevant to policy recommendations for safe and efficient deployment of two- and three-wheeled vehicles in India.