Policy roadmap for accelerating public transit bus electrification in Indonesia

In 2019, Indonesia emitted 1,845,113 gigatons of carbon dioxide (CO2), making the nation the fifth-largest contributor to global CO2 emissions that year. Transport is the most energy-intensive sector of the Indonesian economy and contributed about 9% of total national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2019.

Transportation is a leading source of ambient air pollution in Indonesia, where ozone and fine particulate matter were linked to over 110,000 premature deaths in 2019. At the national level, on-road diesel vehicles caused 34% of transportation-related fine particulate matter and ozone pollution deaths in 2015.

Indonesian President Joko Widodo has identified electric vehicles (EVs) as a key technology in efforts to ensure quality of life and health in the country amid transport-driven economic growth. Meanwhile, the city of Jakarta is taking steps to accelerate the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) in this decade.

This briefing addresses policies the Indonesian government could adopt to accelerate the transition to battery-electric buses (BEBs), which offer a clear opportunity to provide cleaner and wider public transit services. These policies are primarily focused on the national level, with some discussion of policies enacted at the municipal level.

Fleets Zero-emission vehicles