Policy roadmap for accelerating public transit bus electrification in Indonesia
In 2019, Indonesia emitted 1,845,113 gigatons of carbon dioxide (CO2), making the nation the fifth-largest contributor to global CO2 emissions that year. Transport is the most energy-intensive sector of the Indonesian economy and contributed about 9% of total national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2019.
Transportation is a leading source of ambient air pollution in Indonesia, where ozone and fine particulate matter were linked to over 110,000 premature deaths in 2019. At the national level, on-road diesel vehicles caused 34% of transportation-related fine particulate matter and ozone pollution deaths in 2015.
Indonesian President Joko Widodo has identified electric vehicles (EVs) as a key technology in efforts to ensure quality of life and health in the country amid transport-driven economic growth. Meanwhile, the city of Jakarta is taking steps to accelerate the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) in this decade.
This briefing addresses policies the Indonesian government could adopt to accelerate the transition to battery-electric buses (BEBs), which offer a clear opportunity to provide cleaner and wider public transit services. These policies are primarily focused on the national level, with some discussion of policies enacted at the municipal level.