Working Paper

Evaluation of factors that affect total cost of ownership in support of Transjakarta’s electric bus adoption plans

Adopting zero-emission electric buses (e-buses) for public transit presents significant challenges for fleet owners and operators. Transjakarta, the largest bus transit system in Indonesia, has an ambitious plan to fully transition to e-buses by 2030. That transition requires a better understanding of the main factors that affect capital and operational costs of conventional and e-buses in local conditions. This study reviews those factors for the 12m e-bus in the Transjakarta system. Further, it provides operational and policy recommendations to bolster the competitiveness of e-bus technology. Finally, it explores the main factors that affect costs (bus activity in annual kilometers driven, contract duration, fuel and electricity prices, and taxes and fees) using a total cost of ownership (TCO) methodology for both conventional and e-bus technologies.