Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery: Evaluation of the ORVR Program in the United States
Over the last ten years, ORVR has been successfully implemented in the US. A review of ORVR efficiency and penetration conducted by EPA demonstrated a high degree of efficiency and reliability on consumer owned vehicles, and showed that the system is highly cost effective. By adopting a dual ORVR/Stage II approach, requiring Stage II controls in severely polluted areas, and phasing in ORVR requirements for new vehicles starting in 1994, the US was able to take advantage of Stage II controls to quickly reduce VOC emissions in areas with severe pollution problems. The US model also allowed time for ORVR devices to gradually penetrate the vehicle market, resulting in a more cost effective system that reliably mitigated refueling emissions in the long term.