Overview of global zero-emission vehicle mandate programs

Governments in leading auto markets have announced aggressive electrification goals with many targeting a 100% electric share in the 2020-2050 timeframe. These markets are adopting targeted zero emission vehicle (ZEV) regulations such as mandates on manufacturers to accelerate the rate of deployment. Such targeted regulations are in addition to sustained programs and policies supporting consumer incentives, charging infrastructure deployment, and other financial and nonfinancial incentives.

ZEV mandates on manufacturers can result in increased model options in the market. Insufficient model options can deter consumers from purchasing ZEVs even after adequate emphasis on consumer incentives and charging infrastructure. This paper evaluates and compares the key program elements of ZEV mandate policies in California, China, and the voluntary target mechanism in the European Union. These markets collectively account for about 90% of the ZEV market. ZEV mandates alongside stringent CO2 standards and grid decarbonization can provide for an effective policy to accelerate the rate of greenhouse gas reduction from transport.