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Real-world emissions of passenger cars impacted by the London Ultra Low Emission Zone expansion

London’s Low Emission Zone (LEZ) covers the greater London area and regulates access of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and the Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ), added similar regulations for diesel and petrol passenger vehicles. On 25 October 2021 the area of the ULEZ will be expanded to cover more of London. In almost all cases the ULEZ requirements impact vehicle groups with the highest real-world NOx and PM emission levels. Greater emissions benefits would result if drivers impacted by the ULEZ expansion shift activity to zero-emission, non-motorized, or public transit options.