TRUE publication

Measurement of real-world motor vehicle emissions in Jakarta

The Real Urban Emissions (TRUE) Initiative, in partnership with Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), carried out a remote sensing testing study in the Greater Jakarta Region to provide up-to-date information on vehicle emissions. Analysis of the data collected is intended to provide evidence and support for future actions to address the impacts of motor vehicles on air quality and health.

The analysis found that vehicle types where diesel engines are more commonly used—buses, heavy-duty trucks, and light-duty trucks—had the highest median nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions measured during the study. In addition, the results indicated that only a modest improvement in diesel truck emissions was achieved in the past decade. For diesel heavy- and light-duty trucks certified to Euro2/II standards, the median NOx emissions were 15% to 24% lower than those of pre-Euro 2/II vehicles. Although some improvement in median NOx emissions is observed with the introduction of Euro II standards, the emissions are well above the level that can be achieved with modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems.

The analysis also found that, for gasoline passenger vehicles, the implementation of Euro 2 emission standards in 2007 led to significant reductions in tailpipe emissions, including reductions in NOx emissions of 94% compared to pre-2007 model year vehicles. Relative to gasoline models, the implementation of Euro 2 standards for diesel passenger vehicles resulted in more modest emissions decreases, including a 45% reduction in NOx. However, the NOx emissions of Euro 2 diesel passenger vehicles are approximately 7 times higher than those from gasoline models certified to Euro 2 standards.