VW defeat devices: A comparison of U.S. and EU required fixes
Following the revelations that Volkswagen had embedded defeat devices in its software calibrations for all of its 2009–2014 diesels in Europe and 2009–2015 diesels in the US, regulatory agencies have taken various measures to force VW to remedy the problems. With the recent announcement in the United States of a fix for various Volkswagen Group models with 3.0L V6 diesel engines, regulators have defined required emissions system modifications for almost all VW diesel engines in the U.S. market.
This briefing paper compares the modifications required by U.S. and EU authorities. The data continues to support earlier findings that enforcement in the United States is far more effective and stringent than in Europe.