Working Paper

Testing methods for heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency: Trends and implications for India


A number of countries, including Japan, the U.S., Canada, and China, have implemented regulations to control heavy-duty vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and the European Union is currently in the process of establishing a mandatory certification process for determining per-vehicle CO2 emission levels. Other countries, such as Mexico, South Korea, and Brazil, are in the early phases of exploring opportunities for developing their own HDV regulatory measures for efficiency improvements.

Testing and certification procedures are a crucial component of any HDV fuel efficiency regulation. Due to the inherent complexity of the HDV market, there are a number of different testing approaches that are available to policymakers, and there has been a proliferation of unique strategies taken by the various countries to assess per-vehicle fuel consumption. These certification pathways include physical testing such as evaluations performed on engine and chassis dynamometers, as well as assessments of virtual vehicles, which are done in computer simulation models.

The primary objectives of this paper are to provide an analysis of the various testing and certification methods employed in HDV efficiency regulations worldwide and to identify which test methods are most appropriate for India in its initial regulation for HDV fuel efficiency.