Estimated Cost of Gasoline Particulate Filters
The gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is a device that can be installed on the tailpipe of a gasoline vehicle to capture and reduce emissions of particulate matter, a common pollutant. The European Commission is considering proposals for early adoption of gasoline particle number limit values by late 2011 or early 2012 . Likewise in California in tandem with the US EPA, regulators are considering actions to lower the particle mass limit based on the cost and availability of control strategies for particulate matter emissions from gasoline direct injection engines (GDI). The cost of a GPF may therefore affect the stringency of new tailpipe standards.
Some GPF cost estimates have been given publicly. The European Commission’s Klaus Steininger has suggested a GPF cost between $57 and $184. The Manufacturers of Emissions Controls Association (MECA) currently estimates a cost between $50 and $100. The European Joint Research Center (JRC) is now undertaking a cost benefit analysis intended to evaluate GPF costs.
Based on an assessment of production costs for two GPF designs, we estimate for a 2.0L gasoline engine a cost of $106 for a stand-alone GPF and between $114 and $154 for a four-way catalyst, presented here as a three-way catalyst (TWC) with PM trapping capabilities. The true cost will depend on the choice of the system being installed, the production volume, and changes in the cost of raw materials, among other inputs. One potential difference between these estimates and those cited above is that they include labor costs, which are uncertain given the lack of recent data and potential variation between manufacturers. Nevertheless, we find that these GPF cost estimates are reasonably consistent with others offered to-date.